Bipolar Disorder: Recent Issues in Diagnosis and Classification

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Recent findings in the diagnosis, classification, and epidemiology of bipolar disorder are reviewed. Specific bipolar subtypes are delineated. A number of key diagnostic issues that have implications for correctly establishing the diagnosis or for determining optimal treatment approaches are discussed. The epidemiology of comorbid substance abuse and bipolar disorder is reviewed as is the significance of this comorbidity vis-à-vis presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcome. The differential diagnosis between so-called mixed states and agitated depressed is reviewed, and the potential significance of comorbid bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is discussed.

J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(suppl 6):5–10