Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity of Bipolar I Disorder and Axis I and II Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(10):1205-1215
© Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
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Objective: To present nationally
representative data on 12-month and lifetime prevalence,
correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder.
Method: The data were derived from
the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
(N=43,093). Prevalences and associations of bipolar I
disorder with sociodemographic correlates and Axis I
and II disorders were determined.
Results: Prevalences of 12-month and
lifetime DSM-IV bipolar I disorder were 2.0% (95% CI=1.82 to 2.18) and 3.3% (95% CI=2.76
to 3.84), respectively, and no sex differences
were observed. The odds of bipolar I disorder were significantly greater among Native
Americans, younger adults, and respondents who were
widowed/separated/divorced and of lower socioeconomic status and significantly lower
among Asians and Hispanics (p < .05). Men were significantly
(p < .05) more likely to have unipolar
mania and earlier onset and longer duration of
manic episodes, while women were more likely
to have mixed and major depressive episodes and
to be treated for manic, mixed, and major depressive
episodes. Bipolar I disorder was found to
be highly and significantly related (p < .05) to
substance use, anxiety, and personality disorders,
but not to alcohol abuse.
Conclusion: Bipolar I disorder is more
prevalent in the U.S. population than previously
estimated, highlighting the underestimation of the economic costs associated with this illness.
Associations between bipolar I disorder and Axis I
and II disorders were all significant, underscoring
the need for systematic assessment of comorbidity among bipolar I patients.