The Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Sleep in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Objective: To examine the effect of mind-body interventions (MBIs) on sleep quality among cancer patients, the moderating effects of the intervention components, subject characteristics, and methodological features of the relationship between MBIs and sleep.

Data Sources: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, containing data with English-language restriction recorded up to September 15, 2013 were searched thoroughly using keywords related to various types of MBI and sleep.

Study Selection: Of the 114 identified citations, 99 were ineligible. Fifteen studies that followed 1,405 patients with cancer met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed.

Data Extraction: The primary outcome was change in the sleep parameter. Other variables related to components of MBIs, subject characteristics, and methodological features of the studies were also extracted.

Data Synthesis: The weighted mean effect size (ES) was −0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.24 to −0.62) and the long-term effect size (up to 3 months) was −0.29 (95% CI, −0.52 to −0.06). The sensitivity analysis revealed that MBIs had a significant effect on sleep (g = −0.33, P < .001). The moderating effects of components of the intervention, methodological features, subject characteristics, and quality of the studies on the relationship between MBIs and sleep were not found (all P values > .05).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms that the MBIs yielded a medium effect size on sleep quality and the effect was maintained for up to 3 months. The findings support the implementation of MBIs into the multimodal approach to managing sleep quality in patients with cancer.

J Clin Psychiatry 2014;75(11):1215–1223

https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13r08918