Information for Authors

Manuscript Submission

We encourage you to submit your manuscript if it fits within the scope of The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. Acceptance is contingent on favorable peer review. Our user-friendly electronic manuscript submission and peer review system allows you to submit your manuscript online securely, conveniently, and instantly. The system will request that new authors register for an account; authors who have previously submitted should use their previous account login information. Authors can track the progress of their manuscripts from submission to final decision. Assistance is available via e-mail if needed.

NOTE: This account is separate from your Psychiatrist.com and CMEInstitute.com accounts. Thus, even if you are already registered to access our sites, you will still need to establish an account in the manuscript submission system.

Scope: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders (PCC)

Founded in 1998, PCC is an international peer-reviewed online-only journal with weekly postings and 6 issues/year. PCC seeks to advance the clinical expertise of primary care physicians and other health care professionals who treat patients with mental and neurologic illnesses. PCC publishes research from disciplines such as medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and psychology, especially as it pertains to integrated delivery systems and interdisciplinary collaboration.

PCC focuses on providing information of direct clinical utility and giving a voice to clinician researchers. Practice-based research from individuals and groups with clinical expertise is particularly welcome. Pertinent manuscript types include

  • Original research
  • Systematic reviews
  • Meta-analyses
  • Case reports and series
  • Commenting letters to the editor

To submit your concisely written, appropriately referenced, and focused manuscript that fits within this scope and the word count, see the submission guidelines.

Journal Statistics and Impact Information

The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders:

  • Submission-to-first decision time (mean): 30 days
  • Submission-to-acceptance time (mean): 3 months
  • Average number of articles published/issue: 8
  • Average number of letters published/issue: 8
  • Full text is freely accessible with registration at PrimaryCareCompanion.com and available at PubMed Central
  • Nearly 250,000 visitors per month at Psychiatrist.com with almost 95,000 registered users of our website (May 2015, Webtrends)
  • Electronic alerts (Elerts) sent to over 15,000 allied mental health professionals who have requested daily receipt of informational e-mails about our jour​nals and Web CME activities

Submission Requirements

Manuscript

Include the following in the manuscript, prior to submission:

  • Sources of direct funding, support, or sponsorship for the research—or a statement of lack thereof, must be inserted into the manuscript.
  • Role of the sponsor must be included in the manuscript for any manuscript that has had funding, support, or sponsorship.
  • Potential conflicts of interest for each bylined author, or a statement of lack thereof, must be included in the manuscript.
  • Acknowledgment of individuals who have contributed to the research or manuscript but do not qualify for authorship must include their highest academic degree and affiliation and a statement as to the type of contribution and potential conflicts of interest, or lack thereof.
  • Clinical trials registration number, with a hot-link or URL to the registration page, must be included in both the abstract and text of any manuscript reporting a clinical trial. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a clinical trial as “any research project that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to 1 or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.”

Include permissions from the source for the following:

  • Reprinted or adapted graphics must be properly annotated with source information, and permission from the copyright holder must be sought.
  • Personal communications and unpublished data must be identified in text and attributed to a person, with that person’s full name and degree and the year of the data included in text; written permission from that person to be cited must be uploaded to the journal at the time of submission

Author Form

At the time of manuscript submission or revision, the journal must have received a separate, completed Author Form from each individual author.

Location of a Blank Form:

The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders (PCC): http://www.psychiatrist.com/ PCC/ documents/ pccinfoform.pdf

Author:

By signing the Author Form, the bylined author

Corresponding Author:

Submissions should have only ONE corresponding author. By signing the Author Form, the corresponding author

Submission of the Completed Form:

This form can be submitted to the journal in 1 of 4 ways:

  • scanned and uploaded to the electronic submission system (manuscript numbers are not necessary for uploading into the system, but are helpful if forms are sent to the Production Coordinator)
  • faxed to the Publications Coordinator at (901) 273–2752
  • emailed to the Publications Coordinator at PrimaryCare@psychiatrist.com for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders
  • mailed to Physicians Postgraduate Press, P.O. Box 752870, Memphis, TN 38175-2870, Attn: Publications Coordinator

Author Responsibilities

Authorship

Persons listed as authors must have made contributions in each of these 4 areas:

  1. Conception and design or data analysis and interpretation
  2. Drafting of the manuscript or revision for important intellectual content
  3. Approving the final version of the manuscript that is to be published
  4. Accountability for all aspects of the work and the ability to identify the contributions of each coauthor and ensure the integrity of their contributions

All persons designated as authors should fulfill these 4 criteria, and all those who qualify should be listed as authors. All authors must have contributed sufficiently to the work to take public responsibility for the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of a research group, alone, does not justify authorship. If authorship is attributed to a group, each member must meet authorship criteria; group members who do not meet these criteria should be listed in an acknowledgment.

The corresponding author will serve on behalf of the other authors as the primary contact with the editorial office and is responsible for ensuring that the acknowledgment and direct support information are complete. This person is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the article.

Further detailed information can be found at the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) website: http://www.icmje.org/.

Originality of Work

Research for which results do not substantially overlap with previously published research by the same authors or group of authors qualifies as original research.

Manuscripts should be submitted to only 1 journal, which is to be held in confidence with that journal until review is complete, leading to rejection, revision, or acceptance by the journal or withdrawal by the authors. Poster presentations and submission to a clinical trials registry do not constitute previous publication, but notation should be made in the manuscript of any presentations and clinical trials registration.

Analyses of Preexisting Data Sets

For manuscripts that report analyses of preexisting data sets, provide details related to accessing the data set, including

  1. the individual or organization that owns the data set (ie, holds copyright)
  2. where the data set resides (if possible, provide a URL at which it can be accessed)
  3. contact information of someone who can provide access to or further information about the data set, if it is not accessible via a URL

This information should be inserted as a statement into the text’s Method, eg, “The original data set is available from...,” or any wording that's appropriate, or inserted at the end of the article (just before references), eg, “Additional information: The [full proper name of database] can be found at [specific URL].”

Example

At end of end of the manuscript, just before references:

Additional information: The original data set for the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) is available from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov).

Reprinted or Adapted Graphics

Authors must obtain letters of permission to reproduce published material. These documents should be sent at the time of submission of the manuscript and can accompany the Author Form(s). The form(s) can be faxed to the Publications Manager at (901) 273–2752.

The journal requires the express transfer of copyright to Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., to protect the author(s) and Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., from misuse of copyrighted materials. All accepted manuscripts become the property of Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., and may not be published or posted online elsewhere, in part or in whole, without written permission from Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. [For authors who have received government funding from the NIH, see the section National Institutes of Health (NIH)–Funded Research Articles.] (See also Terms and Conditions.)

Open Access Policy

Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., publisher of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, must retain exclusive and unfettered copyright of published materials either in print or electronic formats in perpetuity. For those authors affiliated with institutions that carry open access policies: If, after peer review, you are invited by the editor to revise your manuscript, any author or coauthor affiliated with an institution that requires open access to published manuscripts must submit (1) a copy of the institution’s policy and (2) an acknowledgment from the institution that it has received an opt-out, waiver, or other official document signed by the author and the authorized designate from the institution. The opt-out, waiver, or other official document must represent the express direction of the author that the institution relinquishes any and all explicit or implicit rights of the institution to publish or house the manuscript in any form. The journal will permit the inclusion of metadata from the published article in open access repositories. Metadata include the following: published title, byline, citation, doi, abstract, funding information, and affiliations.

The publisher’s copyright protection lasts the life of the author plus an additional seventy (70) years. If a signed opt-out, waiver, or other official document is not obtained, the manuscript cannot be considered for publication by Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

For authors of National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded research articles, the requirement to opt out of open access policies for authors affiliated with the institutions that carry them is separate and apart from the obligation of authors of NIH-funded research articles who must adhere to the terms of NIH Public Access Policy.  Authors of manuscripts accepted for publication in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry or The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders that report original research funded in whole or in part by an NIH grant have the journal’s permission to submit their accepted manuscript to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central in accordance with the NIH Public Access Policy provided that the manuscript is made publicly available no sooner than 6 months after the official date of print publication.

Clinical Trials Registration

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a clinical trial as “any research project that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to 1 or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.”

The journal requires, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry that meets the criteria noted in the following paragraphs. (Such registration does not constitute previous publication.)

Registration requirements are as follows:

  • For trials beginning on or after July 1, 2005, registration must have occurred before the first patient was enrolled ("prospective registration").
  • For trials beginning on or after July 1, 2008, whose primary goal is to assess major unknown toxicity or determine pharmacokinetics (phase 1 trials), registration must have occurred before the first patient was enrolled ("prospective registration").
  • For trials that began before July 1, 2005, retrospective registration, meaning registration occurs after patient enrollment began, is acceptable.

A public trials registry must meet several criteria:

  • accessible to the public at no charge
  • open to all prospective registrants
  • managed by a not-for-profit organization
  • have a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data
  • be electronically searchable

An acceptable registration must include, at minimum, the following:

  1. a unique trial number
  2. trial registration date
  3. secondary identification information if assigned by sponsors or others
  4. funding source(s)
  5. primary and secondary sponsor(s)
  6. responsible contact person
  7. research contact person
  8. official scientific title of the study
  9. research ethics review
  1. the medical condition being studied
  2. intervention(s)
  3. key inclusion and exclusion criteria
  4. study type
  5. anticipated trial start date
  6. target sample size
  7. recruitment status
  8. primary outcome
  9. key secondary outcomes

For detailed information, please see "Frequently Asked Questions" of the ICMJE Recommendations (previously “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” website at http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials-registration/.

The following trial registries meet the required criteria, although the journal does not advocate one particular registry:

Registry name, URL, and trial ID number must be provided in

  • the online submission form and
  • the manuscript, both at the end of the abstract and in the Method of the text.

Examples

At end of abstract:

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT000123456

Trial Registration: Data used in this secondary analysis came from ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT000123456

In Method section of article:

“The study was approved by the local ethics committee, written informed consent was obtained, and the study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT000123456).”

Previous Presentation

If results of original research have been presented at a meeting or meetings, it does not constitute previous publication, and the manuscript may still be published for the first time with the journal. However, all information about presentations should be annotated in the manuscript.

In an endmatter footnote, include the following for each meeting:

  • Name of the meeting
  • Location (city, state or city, province/country)
  • Date(s) of the presentation

Examples

Previous presentation: Poster presented at the ASCP annual meeting, Tampa, Florida, October 8–10, 2014.

Previous presentation: Presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the ACNP, Phoenix, Arizona, December 9, 2014; and the 28th ECNP Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, August 30, 2014.

Financial Disclosure

Potential Conflicts of Interest:

Authors are required to provide either (1) a statement indicating potential conflicts of interest involving their manuscript or (2) a statement that they have no potential conflicts. Conflicts should reflect activity by the author or his/her spouse within the last 36 months and include, but are not limited to

  • Receipt of funding, support, sponsorship, or provision of materials, including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, etc, from organizations that may gain or lose financially through the publication of the manuscript.
  • Personal financial interests, including stocks and shares in companies that may gain or lose financially from publication; consultation fees or forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; or patent and patent applications whose value may be affected.

Examples

Potential conflicts of interest: Dr Smith serves on the advisory board of Anonymous and has served on the advisory boards of ABC Pharmaceuticals, DEF Research Group, and GHI; has received grant/research support from GHI; and has served on speakers bureau for Anonymous and XYZ. Dr Smith was an employee of ABC Pharmaceuticals at the time of this study but now works for Anonymous.

Potential conflicts of interest: None.

Potential conflicts of interest: The authors report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article.

  • Employment, whether recent, present, or anticipated, by an organization that may gain or lose from publication of the manuscript.
    • If an employee was employed by a supporter of the study at the time of the research, it must be stated in the “Potential conflicts of interest” footnote. An addendum should be added that recognizes the current location of the employee.

Example

Potential conflicts of interest: Dr Smith was an employee of ABC Pharmaceuticals at the time of this study but now works for Anonymous.

    • If an employee is currently employed by a supporter of the study, this redundancy of the affiliations must still be noted in the “Potential conflicts of interest” footnote.

Example

Potential conflicts of interest: Drs Smith and Jones are employees of ABC Pharmaceuticals.

Funding/Support:

Describe direct support in the manuscript; direct funding, support, sponsorship, or provision of materials includes salaries, equipment, supplies, etc, from organizations that may gain or lose financially through the publication of the manuscript.

Examples

Funding/support: This research was supported by grant XYZ from the National Institutes of Health and a small research grant to Dr Smith from the TUV Foundation. Materials for this study were supplied by ABC Pharmaceuticals.

Funding/support: None.

If the study was directly supported in any manner, then a statement on the role of the sponsor in the study must be noted, including publication of the manuscript.

Examples

Role of the sponsors: The supporters had no role in the design, analysis, interpretation, or publication of this study.

Role of the sponsor: ABC Pharmaceuticals supplied materials and participated in formulating the outline of the study but had no role in study selection or interpretation of the evidence. Although staff at ABC reviewed the manuscript, final approval for the decision to submit the manuscript was the sole decision of the authors.

National Institutes of Health (NIH)–Funded Research Articles:

In accordance with the NIH Public Access Policy (http://publicaccess.nih.gov; update March 18, 2014), authors of manuscripts accepted for publication in ajournalthat report original research funded in whole or in part by a National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant must post their research in the NIH Manuscript Submission (NIHMS) System for later deposit in the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central (PMC):

  • Final, peer-reviewed manuscripts must be submitted to the NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS) immediately upon acceptance for publication. The “accepted manuscript” is the final version accepted for journal publication that includes all modifications from the publishing peer review process but does not include author-approved editing/copyediting and formatting by the journal’s editorial staff during the publication process.
  • Manuscripts should be made publicly available in PMC no later than 12 months after the official date of publication.
  • The publisher of the journal allows authors to post at PMC no sooner than 6 months after the official date of publication. Thus, authors submitting their accepted manuscripts to PMC in NIHMS must set the embargo date to 6 months after publication.
  • Submitting PDFs of the final copyedited article to PMC or NIHMS is prohibited and constitutes copyright infringement. Therefore, a PDF of the publisher’s article should not be submitted or posted. The article of record is the final version published on the journal’s online website (www.psychiatrist.com). The journal assumes no responsibility for earlier versions, which may differ substantively.

Acknowledgment

Authors may include a footnote in the endmatter that acknowledges contributions of groups or persons who do not qualify for authorship. Acknowledged individuals might include those who have provided data gathering, writing, or clerical assistance; statistical or general review; or performance of special tests.

When specific individuals are acknowledged, 2 steps must be taken:

First: The Corresponding Author:

  1. must receive written permission from the acknowledged person to be acknowledged
  2. asserts, by signing the Author Form, that written permission has been received from individuals being acknowledged

Second: The Manuscript must include the following information for each person named in the Acknowledgment:

  1. highest academic degree
  2. institutional affiliation
  3. type of assistance
  4. conflict of interest statement (For manuscripts in which many persons are acknowledged, a summary statement that applies to all acknowledged individuals and the effect any of their potential conflicts may have had on their participation in the study is acceptable.)

Example

Acknowledgments: The authors thank John M. Doe, PhD (XYZ Consulting, City, Country), supported by ABC Pharmaceuticals, for insights on methodology; and Michael T. M. Jones, MSc, for technical assistance and managing the subjects, and Ms Jane Smith, BA, for assistance with typing the manuscript, both from JKL University, City, State. Mr Jones and Ms Smith have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Citation of Unpublished Material

Unpublished material includes personal communications and unpublished data such as data on file and manuscripts in preparation, submitted but not yet accepted, or in press. Each type of unpublished material must meet a specific set of criteria for it to be included in the manuscript, but the most important criterion is that written permission from the source of the unpublished material must be submitted to the journal. See the Citations section under Manuscript Components for specifics on how to handle these types of citations.

Helpful Links

ICMJE’s Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals

Published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), this document, formerly titled Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, covers ethical principles related to evaluating, improving, and publishing manuscripts, as well as technical aspects of preparing and submitting manuscripts.

CONSORT Statement

The CONSORT Statement provides guidelines for improved reporting of clinical trials through the use of a checklist and study flow diagram.

PRISMA Statement

The PRISMA Statement provides guidelines for transparent reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses through the use of a checklist and study flow diagram.

Editorial Review and Publication

Peer Review

Manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal that meet its scope and submission criteria are sent to expert consultants for peer review. Please see Reviewers for details about the peer review process and information on becoming a reviewer.

Copyediting

Manuscripts accepted for publication after peer review will be copyedited for clarity, conciseness, and conformity with journal style and returned to the corresponding author for approval. Bylined authors are responsible for all statements in their work, including changes authorized by the corresponding author.

Embargo

Articles are embargoed until they are published online at PrimaryCareCompanion.com. Contact PCCembargo@psychiatrist.com for information about a specific “In press” article for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. (See Copyright Policy and Terms and Conditions.)

Free Access Option

The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders: PCC offers authors of accepted articles and letters the opportunity to make the PDF of their article or letter freely available to readers on PCC’s Web site, PrimaryCareCompanion.com. The charge for this service is $350 and is payable by check or credit card. Authors are provided this option at the time of acceptance.

Of the 50,000 readers of the online PCC, all must pay a $30 fee to download an article PDF. The option of financial sponsorship allows you to provide each Web visitor unrestricted access to the PDF of your article or letter. Each sponsored article is flagged online to indicate free PDF availability, and, to further expand your article’s visibility, an Elert announcing the publication of your article will indicate free PDF access to journal readers.

Submission of payment signifies your agreement to the Terms and Conditions for copyrighted work.

Reprints

Single copies of articles or back issues, as well as larger quantities of high-quality photocopies or reprints, can be purchased from reprints@psychiatrist.com. At the time of publication, all authors are sent notification when their manuscript publishes. Corresponding authors receive a complimentary PDF with instructions on how the PDF may and may not be used. Learn more about reprints, eprints, and permissions at this links: Reprints and Permissions. (See also Copyright Policy and Terms and Conditions.)

Permissions

Physician’s Postgraduate Press, Inc., owns the copyrights for the material published in its publications, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, and their associated Web sites. The information as it is presented in all forms is the property of the Company. See Reprints and Permissions for how to acquire permission to use copyrighted material.

Terms and Conditions

All materials published by Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., are the property of Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., unless otherwise stated, and are subject to all laws pertaining to copyrighted work.

Retention of copyright by Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., means the work may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including electronic, photocopying, or otherwise; distributed in any form or by any means; publicly displayed in any form including but not limited to Internet, Extranet, PowerPoint, or posters; and used for commercial, promotional, or marketing purposes, which include sale, resale, transfer, loan, license, or other forms of commercial exploitation. (See also Copyright Policy.)

Manuscript Components

Cover Letter

All manuscripts, including letters to the editor, must be accompanied by an electronic cover letter. Manuscripts are reviewed with the understanding that they represent original material, have never been published before, are not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and have been approved by each author. Prior publication constitutes any form of publication other than an abstract or clinical trial registration and includes invited articles, proceedings, symposia, and book chapters. Authors should fully inform the editor in the cover letter if the submitted manuscript contains data or clinical observations that have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, supply copies of such material, and explain the differences between the works.

Manuscripts should have margins of at least 1 in and be double-spaced throughout, including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and legends for figures. Number pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. Each section should begin on a separate page, and the sections should be arranged in the following order: (1) title page, (2) abstract and key words, (3) text, and (4) references. Tables and figures should be submitted as separate file(s) from the manuscript.

Title Page

The title of the article should be concise but informative and should convey the basic design of the study.
For each author, provide first name, middle initial, and last name along with highest academic degree(s) and departmental and institutional affiliation, including city/state/country location.
At the bottom of the title page, list the following:

  1. Sources of financial and material support, specifying the nature of the support and the location (city and state/country) of the funding source.
  2. Indications of previous presentation, including the date(s) and location of the meeting where the data were presented.
  3. Acknowledgment of assistance (see Acknowledgment).
  4. Any applicable disclaimer statements.
  5. Full address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.

Word Counts

Articles:

  • All article types should include a structured abstract of about 250 words or less, no more than 5 tables and/or figures, and no more than 75 references.
  • Original research should have a maximum length of 3,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references).
  • Reviews and meta-analyses should be no more than 5,000 words of text.
  • Consensus statements should be no more than 5,000 words of text.

Case Reports:

  • Should not exceed 600 words and should not include more than 1 table or figure
  • Should be styled as a Letter to the Editor
  • Should describe novel, well-documented findings that will be of help and interest to the practitioner
  • Only exceptional cases (eg, those involving multiple crossover trials or sophisticated laboratory techniques) will be considered for publication as full articles.

Letters to the Editor:

  • Letters of original research should not exceed 600 words and should not include more than 1 table or figure
  • Letters commenting on a recent article(s) in PCC should not exceed 500 words and will be sent to the author(s) for response.

Abstract

If you are submitting an article, you are required to include a structured abstract of about 250 words or less. The abstract must reflect the text or graphics; that is, no information should be included in the abstract that cannot be drawn from the text or graphics.

Reports of Original Data:

Objective: State the question addressed in the study.

Method: Describe the basic study design. State the setting (eg, primary care, referral center). Explain selection of study subjects and state the system of diagnostic criteria used. Describe any interventions and include their duration and method of administration. Indicate the main outcome measure(s). Specify the dates in which data were collected (month/year to month/year).

Results: Include the key findings. Give specific data and their statistical significance, if possible (include P value if findings were significant). Subset Ns should accompany percentages if the total N is < 100.

Conclusion: Summarize the conclusions.

Clinical Trials Registration: If the article reports a clinical trial, give the trial registry name, URL, and registration number.

Review Articles and Meta-Analyses:

Objective: State the primary objective of the article.

Data Sources: Describe the data sources that were searched, including dates, keywords, and constraints (eg, language limits).

Study Selection: Identify the number of studies reviewed and the criteria used for their selection.

Data Extraction: Summarize guidelines used for abstracting data and how they were applied.

Results: State the main results of the review and the methods used to obtain these results.

Conclusions: Summarize the conclusions.

Review and Case Study Combined:

Objective: State the primary objective of the article.

Data Sources: Describe the data sources that were searched, including dates, keywords, and constraints (eg, language limits). If the list of search terms is complicated and somewhat lengthy, a summary of terms can be used in the abstract.

Study Selection: Identify the number of studies retrieved and ultimately reviewed and the criteria used for their selection. By reading the abstract, the reader should be able to follow the progression of the process.

Data Extraction: Summarize guidelines used for abstracting data for the meta-analysis and how they were applied. The case-control study information under Method should be incorporated here.

Results: State the main results of the review and the methods used to obtain these results.

Conclusions: Summarize the conclusions.

Consensus Statements:

Objective: State the issue, purpose, and intended audience.

Participants: Describe how people were chosen to be participants, state the number of participants, and describe their areas of expertise. State whether meetings were open or closed.

Evidence: Describe what data sources were used and explain their selection, abstraction, and the method of their synthesis. If a formal literature review was conducted, state who wrote it and whether it was reviewed. Describe any use of unpublished data. Explain the influence of expert opinion and comments from the participants.

Consensus Process: Describe the basis for conclusions. State how consensus was achieved. Describe the writing of the consensus statement, including who wrote it, whether it was drafted before or after the group expressed its opinions, and when it was written. Explain who reviewed the statement and how revision suggestions were utilized.

Conclusions: Summarize the consensus statement, and include any important minority views.

Further details on writing informative structured abstracts can be obtained from the following:

Letters to the Editor (includes case reports)

Letters must include a descriptive title, but they should not have an abstract. Most letters to the editor either report cases or small studies or comment on a recent journal article. Letters to the Editor and case reports should not exceed 600 words and 1 table or figure.

Case reports should describe novel, well-documented findings that will be of use to the practitioner.

For case reports and small studies, ensure that the chronology of events is clear, and specify the month/year in which events occurred. Specify diagnostic criteria used for any diagnoses mentioned, and provide references for scales/assessment tools used. If a search of the literature was conducted for related case reports, specify the data sources, keywords, and any date/language limitations used in the search.

Letters reporting small studies typically include (1) a brief introductory paragraph, (2) sections titled "Method" and "Results" (labeled with capitalized headings), and (3) a conclusions/discussion section.

Letters reporting cases typically consist of (1) a brief introductory paragraph, (2) description of the cases, and (3) a discussion section. For letters reporting multiple cases, the types of clinical and demographic details given (eg, race, gender, occupation, marital status, medications, follow-up) should be consistent among the cases. It is not necessary to include all of these details in case reports, but if a particular characteristic, eg, occupation, is reported for one case, it should be reported for all of the cases.

For letters commenting on a Journal article, include a numbered reference to the article discussed. Be concise, and support your assertions with references as applicable. Also, please note that the authors of the original article will be given the opportunity to reply to letters commenting on their article. Letters that pertain to recent articles in the Journal should not exceed 500 words.

Text of the Article

Reports of Original Data:

The text of observational and experimental articles is usually--but not necessarily--divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. Lengthy articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content. Manuscripts should have a maximum length of 3,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references).

  • Use nonproprietary names of drugs, unless a specific trade name is relevant to the discussion.
  • Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.

Introduction

State the purpose of the article. Summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references, and do not review the subject extensively. Do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

Method

Describe your selection of the observational or experimental subjects (including controls) clearly, including eligibility. Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and city/state/country location in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below). Include references for all assessment tools, including scales, used in the study. Describe new or modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Specify the dates in which data were collected (month/year to month/year).

  • Diagnosis. State the diagnosis and diagnostic criteria. Justify the use of diagnostic criteria other than DSM-IV.
  • Informed Consent/Ethics Review. Manuscripts that report experimental investigations with human subjects must include a statement that subjects (or parents/guardians) gave their informed consent after the procedure(s) and possible side effects were fully explained. Also state whether institutional review board approval was obtained for the investigation; if it was not, provide an explanation. Investigators without access to formal ethical review committees should follow Declaration of Helsinki guidelines and state this in the manuscript.
  • Patient Confidentiality. Ethical and legal considerations dictate protection of patients' anonymity. Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers in text or illustrative material. Avoid dates and disguise characteristics and personal history that would identify a patient.
  • Statistics. Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information. Give numbers of observations. Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). Reference statistical tests that are not well known. Specify any general-use computer programs used.

Results

Present your results in logical sequence. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or figures; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Subset Ns should accompany percentages if the total N is < 100. For original research, results should not be shown as not significant or NS. Actual P values are important for future meta-analyses research. Please include actual P values, and preferably confidence intervals or limits, when reporting nonsignificant results.

Discussion

Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail material given in the Introduction or the Results section. Present in the Discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data.

Review Articles and Meta-Analyses:

When preparing review articles and meta-analyses, describe the methods used in performing the literature review. This description includes listing the data sources searched (for example, MEDLINE) and the dates, keywords, and constraints (for example, language limits) used in the search; the criteria used to select the included studies; and the guidelines used for abstracting and synthesizing the data. Word limit for review articles and meta-analyses should not exceed 5,000 words of text.

In meta-analyses, several basic content areas should be addressed: study design, combinability, control of bias, statistical analysis, sensitivity analysis, and problems of applicability.

Please refer to the information on Abstracts for a more detailed framework of the necessary elements for review articles and meta-analyses.

Consensus Statements:

Consensus statements should identify the participants and their areas of expertise, as well as the source of funding or sponsor. Describe the data sources used and explain their selection, abstraction, and the method of their synthesis. A description of the process used to reach consensus should be included. Explain how conclusions were reached.

Please refer to the information on Abstracts for a more detailed framework of the necessary elements for consensus statements. Word limit for consensus statements should not exceed 5,000 words.

Citations

Bibliographic References:

The reference list should include only references to information that is retrievable. Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the references against the original publications or presentations. Reference lists are limited to 75 references.

Citing References in Text and Graphics

  • Number references consecutively in the order in which they are cited in text. If a graphic is called out that contains a reference not previously cited, it would be the next consecutive reference, and then the text would pick up with the next “new” reference.

Example

Reference 28 is the last reference cited in text before the Table 1 callout, which has references not yet cited in text, starting with reference 29 and going through 77. Text in the Discussion picks up with the next new reference, 78.

. . . Metabolite ratios including glutamate have been found to change with age.27,28 Table 1 shows the characteristics of each study, compares glutamatergic metabolites . . .

table example showing continuing references
  • Identify references by superscript Arabic numerals. When applicable, place the reference after the study itself or an author’s name, if you choose to mention a name.

Examples

“. . . while 1 previous 6-month study30 reported no increase in relapse following an approximately 25% dose reduction of olanzapine, a 1-year study31 did demonstrate an increase in relapse. . . ”

“. . . using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) studies.18,19

“. . . a higher D2 receptor occupancy with atypical antipsychotics has been associated at least partly with cognitive impairment,3 negative subjective experience,4 and hyperprolactinemia.5

Format if author name(s) are used:

1 author: “Smith2 states that...”

2 authors: “Smith and Jones2 state that...”

3 or more authors: “Smith et al2 state that...” or “Smith and colleagues2 state that...”

Reference List Style

The journal follows the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition. Abbreviations of journal names must conform to Index Medicus style.

Examples

  1. Mammen OK, Shear MK, Pilkonis PA, et al. Anger attacks: correlates and significance of an underrecognized symptom. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(9):633–642.
  2. Schneck C. St John's wort and hypomania [letter]. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(12):689.
  3. Garfinkel PE. Eating disorders. In: Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, eds.Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, vol 2. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1995:1361–1371.
  4. Desan PH, Sanders KM. Risk factors for suicide in emergency psychiatry. In: New Research Program and Abstracts of the 152nd Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 18, 1999; Washington, DC. Abstract NR358:164.
  5. Dubovsky SL. Generalized anxiety disorder: new concepts and psychopharmacologic therapies. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986;47(suppl 4):46–66.
  6. Tharyan P, Adams CE. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD000076.
  7. van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus [published online ahead of print March 21, 2004]. Nat Med. 2004;10(4):368–373. doi:10.1038.nm1024.
  8. Williamson DJ. Neurocognitive impairment: feigned, exaggerated, or real?Curr Psychiatry. 2007;6(8). http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/article_pages.asp?AID=5208&UID=. Accessed August 10, 2007.
  9. Interim guidance about avian influenza A for US citizens living abroad. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/travel/other/avian_flu_ig_americans_abroad_0320405.htm. Updated November 18, 2005. Accessed August 10, 2007.
  10. Paxil [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2004.
  • “In press” references to articles accepted but not yet published can be cited and included in the reference list if the title and journal name or book publisher are given (see Unpublished Material).
  • References to personal communications or to material not yet accepted for publication may not be included in the reference list, but instead should be cited parenthetically in text (see Unpublished Material).

Unpublished Material:

Unpublished material includes personal communications and unpublished data such as data on file and manuscripts in preparation, submitted but not yet accepted, or in press.

  • Each type of unpublished material must meet a specific set of criteria for it to be included in the manuscript, but the most important criterion is that written permission from the source of the unpublished material must be submitted to the journal.
  • Another important point: personal communications and unpublished data should only be cited in text and not included in the list of references.

Ways to include these citations and the requirements for each specific type of unpublished material:

Personal Communications

To include a personal communication from each person you identify as a source of information:

In the manuscript, authors must

  1. provide the person’s initials, surname, and highest academic degree(s)
  2. include the date of the communication
  3. state whether the communication was in written, verbal, or electronic form

In the submission system:

  1. upload written permission from the person whose personal communication is cited

Examples

Similar findings have been noted in other studies (see references 10–12 and J. M. Doe, PhD, written communication, November 2014).

Similar findings were noted in a conversation with the manufacturer (R. Smith, MD, August 2013).

Unpublished Data

To include unpublished data from each person you identify as a source of information:

In the manuscript, authors must 

  1. provide the initials, surname, and highest academic degree(s) of the cited individual(s); up to 3 researchers may be mentioned
  2. include the year in which the data were produced

In the submission system:

  1. upload written permission from the person identified as the source of information for the data if the source is not one of the bylined authors; the written permission must be uploaded to the journal with the manuscript’s submission

Examples

In this example, written permission is needed from all 3 persons cited:

Similar findings have been noted in other studies10–12 and by J. M. Doe, PhD; R. Smith, MD; and T. H. Jones, MD, PhD (unpublished data, 2014).

In this example, X.P.Q. is a bylined author and separate written permission is not needed. However, some bylined authors may want to give credit to colleagues, in which case up to 2 additional researchers may be included in a list of 3 researchers, if warranted, eg, J. M. Doe, PhD; X.P.Q.; and T. H. Jones, MD, PhD (unpublished data, 2014); written permission is then needed from the other 2 researchers, in this case, Doe and Jones:

Another study (X.P.Q., unpublished data, 2013) has confirmed the findings of Williams et al.7

Unpublished Data in Meta-Analyses

When performing a meta-analysis, you may sometimes need to contact the author of an article you’re citing for information that was not published, eg, to learn the disposition of a subject or whether certain data were collected but not reported in the original study. If you contact these authors and further information is provided:

  • citation is required
  • you do not need permission from them to cite their information

Examples

Twenty of the 25 patients in Doe et al completed grade 12 (J. M. Doe, PhD, unpublished data, 2014).

According to Smith et al, none of the patients experienced nausea (T. Smith, MD, verbal communication, January 22, 2015).

Data on File

Data on file from a pharmaceutical company are considered unpublished data.
In the manuscript, authors must 

  1. provide the initials, surname, and highest academic degree(s); if more than 1 person should be included as a researcher of the data, then up to 3 researchers may be mentioned
  2. include the year in which the data were produced

In the submission system:

  1. upload written permission from the person identified as the source of information for the data if the source is not one of the bylined authors; the written permission must be uploaded to the journal with the manuscript’s submission

Examples

In this example, written permission is needed from all 3 persons cited:

Similar findings have been noted in other studies10–12 and by J. M. Doe, PhD; R. Smith, MD; and T. H. Jones, MD, PhD (unpublished data, 2014).

In this example, X.P.Q. is a bylined author and separate written permission is not needed. However, some bylined authors may want to give credit to colleagues, in which case up to 2 additional researchers may be included in a list of 3 researchers, if warranted, eg, J. M. Doe, PhD; X.P.Q.; and T. H. Jones, MD, PhD (unpublished data, 2014); written permission is then needed from the other 2 researchers, in this case, Doe and Jones:

Another study (X.P.Q., unpublished data, 2013) has confirmed the findings of Williams et al.7

Manuscripts Submitted, in Press, or in Preparation

When citing an unpublished manuscript, consider that the status of the cited manuscript may change substantially from the time when your manuscript is submitted/accepted until the time it is published. Before citing unpublished data, consider whether doing so could jeopardize publication of the manuscript still in review, ie, whether publication of your manuscript could potentially “scoop” the data presented in the one still under review. If it could, then you should not publish outcomes reported in that manuscript, and the relevant information should be removed from your article.

  • Submitted:

    When citing data from a manuscript that has been submitted but that has not yet been accepted, you must consider whether publication of the data could jeopardize publication of the manuscript still under review, ie, whether it could potentially “scoop” that manuscript’s data presented. If it could, then you should not publish outcomes reported in that manuscript, and the relevant information should be removed from your article.

    If you still wish to cite a submitted—but not yet accepted—manuscript, the citation must be placed in text and not in the numbered bibliographic references. It is labeled as “unpublished data,” and the same rules apply as for unpublished data:

    1. obtain written permission from the primary researcher of the data if one of the bylined authors is not a researcher of the data
    2. include the year in which the data were produced
    3. provide the initials, surname, and highest academic degree(s); if more than 1 person should be included as a researcher of the data, then up to 3 researchers may be mentioned
  • In press:

    Manuscripts accepted for publication are considered “in press” and should be listed in the bibliographic reference list and numbered consecutively with other citations in text.

    If you’ve cited a submitted manuscript that is later accepted (becomes “in press”) during the review process of your manuscript, Journal staff should be notified, and a decision will be made whether to add the now “In press” manuscript to the references and renumber the list or simply footnote the full reference. The style would resemble the following:

Example

Doe JM, Smith R, Jones TH, et al. Effect of drug A on depression severity. J Clin Psychiatry. In press.

  • In preparation:

    If you want to cite one of your manuscripts that is still in development, and it has data that have not yet been submitted to a journal, it can be cited parenthetically in text as "manuscript in preparation"; however, you need to be aware that citing results in this current manuscript could constitute previous publication and may jeopardize future acceptance of the in-preparation manuscript. Authors will need to provide the same information as for unpublished data.

    1. obtain written permission from the primary researcher of the data if one of the bylined authors is not a researcher of the data
    2. include the year in which the data were produced
    3. provide the initials, surname, and highest academic degree(s); if more than 1 person should be included as a researcher of the data, then up to 3 researchers may be mentioned

Tables and Figures

Computer-generated figures should be submitted as separate files (minimum 300 dpi). Please provide . . .

  • Editable figure(s) saved from the original software by using the “Save As” or “Export” function to create an AI (Adobe Illustrator), EPS, or PDF from the original file.
  • If created in a Microsoft package, supply the original file DOC, XLS, or PPT.
  • If all that can be provided is an image (vs the editable figure itself), supply one of the following:
    • 600 dpi minimum PDF
    • JPG saved at the maximum quality setting
    • PSD (Adobe Photoshop)

Tables and figures should not duplicate text or one another and must be self-explanatory. Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text, as should figures. Acknowledge the original source of a previously published or adapted table or figure and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material.

Footnotes. 3 types:

  • General footnotes are designated by lowercase superscript letters. Footnote anchors may be placed in both the title and the body and should proceed alphabetically from top to bottom, and left to right, as one would read across a page of the journal.
  • Simple P values given in footnotes are indicated by single asterisk, double asterisk, etc.
  • Abbreviations should be expanded in the last footnote after the label “Abbreviations:” and be listed in the alphabetical order of the abbreviation. It does not need to be anchored to the text.  

Tables. Identify each table by a brief descriptive title. Give each column a short heading. When percentages are presented, the appropriate numbers must also be given. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the headings or title. Units of measurement should be specified. Definitions of symbols appearing in tables should be listed at the end of the footnotes, with the expansions of abbreviations.

Figures. Two-dimensional graphs should not be represented in 3 dimensions. Figures are usually reduced to a width of 19.5 picas (3.25 in, 8.2 cm). Definitions of symbols appearing in the figure should be presented in a key (or legend) within the figure, rather than in the title or footnotes. The key should appear within or above the figure but should not widen the figure.

References Within Graphics. Ensure references embedded within a graphic are numbered consecutively with the text, from where graphic’s callout is first cited. See Citing References in Text and Graphics.