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A Survey of Sleep Quality in Patients With 13 Types of Mental Disorders

Cui Lijun, MD; Li Ke-qing, PhD; Sun Xiuli, MD; Cui Ze, MD; Jiang Qinpu, MD; Han Yanchao, MD; Gao Lianghui, MD; Zhang Yang, MD; Li Jianfeng, MD; Liu Yongqiao, MD; Yang Laohu, MD; and Lv Hua, MD

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the sleep characteristics of a community sample of patients with 13 types of mental disorders.

Method: Subjects aged 18 years and older were sampled from the Epidemiologic Sites Survey of Mental Illness at a mental health center in Hebei Province, Baoding, China, from October 2004 to March 2005. The study group included 1,874 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria of 13 types of mental disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders–Patient Edition (major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar affective disorder, somatoform disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, specific phobia, schizophrenia, adjustment disorder, social phobia, and alcohol abuse and dependence.) The control group included 15,117 subjects without mental disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) was used to assess social life function.

Results: The prevalence of sleep disorders was 11.6% in the survey respondents. The prevalence of sleep disturbances in the group with 13 types of mental disorders ranged from 19.30% to 69.92%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of sleep disorders between the study group (48.61%) and the control group (5.55%; P < .01). The prevalence of sleep disturbance in subjects with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was 69.92% and 58.27%, respectively. Longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration were the most common features of low quality sleep in patients with mental disorders. There was a significant difference in sleep latency and duration in subjects with major depressive disorder (P < .01), dysthymic disorder (P < .01), and generalized anxiety disorder (P < .01) compared to control subjects. Sleep medication was used most by subjects with schizophrenia and least by those with social phobia. Daytime dysfunction was most notable in subjects with major depressive disorder. Subjects with mental disorders with sleep disorders tended to be older than those with mental disorders without sleep disorders. The prevalence of sleep disorders was higher in patients with mental disorders who were female, older, less educated, retired or farmers, and widowed. There was no relation between the severity of depression and sleep disorders.

Conclusions: The prevalence of sleep disorders in subjects with mental disorders was high. Longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration were the most common characteristics of low quality sleep in the patients with mental disorders and were most notable in those with depression.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2012;14(6):doi:10.4088/PCC.11m01173

Submitted: February 23, 2011; accepted February 29, 2012.

Published online: December 13, 2012.

Corresponding author: Li Ke-qing, PhD, Health Center of Hebei Province, Baoding 071000, China (like1002@sina.com).