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Effect of Olanzapine, Risperidone, and Haloperidol Treatment on Weight and Body Mass Index in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients in India: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Prospective Study
Sahoo Saddichha, M.B.B.S., D.P.M.; Narayana Manjunatha, D.P.M., M.D.; Shahul Ameen, M.D.; and Sayeed Akhtar, M.D., D.N.B.
Objective: The presence of obesity and increases in body mass are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This study examined the effects of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on weight, body mass index (BMI), and development of obesity in a drug-naive population compared with a matched healthy control group.
Method: Consecutive patients during the period from June through October 2006 with DSM-IV schizophrenia at our referral psychiatric hospital were recruited for an extensive prospective study that included anthropometric measures of weight, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and BMI. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive haloperidol, olanzapine, or risperidone and compared with a matched healthy control group. The prevalence of obesity, which was the main outcome measure, was assessed on the basis of 2 criteria: revised World Health Organization (WHO) definition for Asians and criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Inclusions started in June 2006, and patients were followed for a period of 6 weeks.
Results: The analysis of 66 patients showed a prevalence of overweight (WHO criteria) at 22.7% and obesity at 31.8% (IDF criteria). The prevalence of obesity (IDF criteria) in our patients is over 30 times as high as that of the matched healthy control group (p < .001). Subjects in the olanzapine group had the greatest weight gain at 5.1 kg, followed by risperidone at 4.1 kg and haloperidol at 2.8 kg.
Conclusions: Obesity is highly prevalent among patients treated with atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Assessment and monitoring of obesity along with preventive and curative measures should be part of the clinical management of patients treated with antipsychotics.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00534183, www.clinicaltrials.gov.
(J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:1793-1798)
Received April 30, 2007; accepted June 18, 2007. From the Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi (Drs. Saddichha, Manjunatha, and Akhtar); and St. John's Hospital, Kattappana, Idukki, Kerala (Dr. Ameen), India.
The authors report no external sources of funding for this study.
The authors report no financial affiliations or other relationships relevant to the subject of this article.
The authors thank Ms. Vibha Pandey for her immense help in collecting data and data entry. Ms. Pandey has no conflicting interests to report.
Corresponding author and reprints: Sahoo Saddichha, M.B.B.S., D.P.M., Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, 834006, India (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).