Depression After Stroke: An Investigation Through Catamnesis
J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(6):261-265
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Background: In the early stage of stroke, depression appears to be linked to certain brain areas. The study evaluated the importance of the side of the lesion in depressed patients 3 years after their first stroke.
Method: Patients who had suffered a stroke and been discharged after rehabilitation were identified by hospital records. We interviewed 180 patients at home. Demographic as well as socioeconomic data were collected. The Northwestern University Disability Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Relatives' Stress Scale, and the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale were applied. The diagnosis was confirmed for each patient by a clinical assessment according to the ICD-10 criteria. Patients with previous psychiatric treatment, comprehension problems, or severe hemiinattention were excluded.
Results: By using a score of 14 on the BDI as a cutoff, 62 patients (34%) proved to be affected by depressive disorders. Clinical records showed that the location of the lesion was in the right hemisphere for 37 patients and in the left hemisphere for 25 patients. Statistical analysis of the mean scores obtained in this subgroup of depressed patients showed (1) no significant relation between depression and the hemispheric location of the lesion or between depression and level of education; (2) relation between BDI score and social activities; and (3) stress on the relatives that was mainly dependent on both the disability of the patients and their loss of social activities, whereas depression played a minor role.
Conclusion: A high percentage of patients have depressive disorders 3 years or more after the stroke, independent of the side. Such mood disorders worsen the relationship between the disabled patients and their relatives and worsen leisure independent of the affected hemisphere.