Relationship of Mood Disturbance to Cigarette Smoking Status Among 252 Patients With a Current Mood Disorder
J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(5):319-324
© Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Purchase This PDF for $40.00
If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
(You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP online-only ($86) or print + online ($156 individual).
With your subscription, receive a free PDF collection of the NCDEU Festschrift articles. Hurry! This offer ends December 31, 2011.
If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
Click here to login.
Did you forget your password?
Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send email
Background: The relationship between cigarette
smoking and mood has received increasing attention. This
retrospective study evaluated the relationship between mood
disturbance and cigarette smoking status among patients with a
current mood disorder. The association between level of nicotine
dependence and severity of mood disturbance was also evaluated
among current smokers.
Method: Retrospective data for 252 patients
(63.5% male, 85.0% white) admitted for treatment of a mood
disorder at the San Diego Veteran Affairs Mental Health Clinical
Research Center between November 1988 and June 1997 were studied.
All current cigarette smokers at admission (N = 126) were matched
with nonsmokers (N = 126) on the primary DSM-IV Axis I mood
disorder diagnosis, admission status (inpatient or outpatient),
gender, age (± 5 years), and ethnicity. The Hamilton Rating
Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Beck Depression Inventory, and
the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were administered to patients
on admission. Conditional logistic regression analysis for
matched sets with a backward elimination was used to identify
factors independently predictive of current smoking status.
Results: A greater number of cups of coffee
consumed per day (p = .002), a history of alcoholism (p = .004),
and higher POMS fatigue subscale scores (p = .007) were
predictive of current smoking status. Among current smokers, the
HAM-D terminal insomnia item was positively associated with mean
number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .012).
Conclusion: Cigarette smoking should be
addressed in the treatment of patients with a current mood
disorder. Smokers experience greater levels of fatigue than
nonsmokers. In addition, higher cigarette consumption levels are
associated with mild-to-severe symptoms of terminal insomnia.