Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Israeli Ex-Prisoners of War 18 and 30 Years After Release.[CME]
J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(8):1031-1037
© Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
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Background: The psychological responses
to captivity were measured in a sample of former prisoners of war
(POWs) 18 and 30 years after release from captivity.
Method: 209 Israeli veterans of the 1973
Yom Kippur War (103 ex-POWs and 106 controls) who had taken part
in a previous study conducted in 1991 participated in the current
study conducted in 2003. The study assessed current rates of
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), changes in PTSD over time,
and the contribution of captivity severity (objective and
subjective), sociodemographic variables, and psychological
appraisal and coping with captivity to predicting PTSD using
standardized self-report questionnaires.
Results: Twenty-three percent of the
ex-POWs met PTSD criteria and were 10 times more likely than
controls to experience deterioration in their psychological
condition in the 12-year interval between the 2 assessments.
Almost 20% of ex-POWs who did not meet PTSD criteria in 1991 met
criteria in the current assessment, in comparison to almost 1% of
the controls. Current PTSD was predicted by younger age at the
time of captivity, by loss of emotional control and higher
subjective appraisal of suffering in captivity, and by a greater
number of PTSD symptoms in the 1991 assessment.
Conclusion: It is important to follow up
and offer treatment to former POWs. Special attention should be
paid to those who lost emotional control in captivity and to
those who felt that the conditions of their captivity were