The Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in the United States in 2002
J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(9):1122-1129
© Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Purchase This PDF for $40.00
If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
(You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP online-only ($86) or print + online ($156 individual).
With your subscription, receive a free PDF collection of the NCDEU Festschrift articles. Hurry! This offer ends December 31, 2011.
If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
Click here to login.
Did you forget your password?
Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send email
Objective: This study quantifies excess
annual costs associated with schizophrenia patients in
the United States in 2002 from a societal perspective.
Method: Annual direct medical costs
associated with schizophrenia were estimated
separately for privately (N = 1090) and publicly
(Medicaid; N = 14,074) insured patients based on
administrative claims data, including a large private
claims database and the California Medicaid
program (Medi-Cal) database, and compared separately
to demographically/geographically matched control samples (1 case:3 controls). Medicare costs
of patients over age 65 years were imputed using
the Medicare/Medi-Cal dual-eligible patients (N = 1491) and published statistics. Excess
annual direct non-health care costs were estimated for law enforcement, homeless shelters, and
research/training related to schizophrenia. Excess annual indirect costs were estimated for 4
components of productivity loss: unemployment, reduced workplace productivity, premature
mortality from suicide, and family caregiving using
a human capital approach based on market wages. All costs were adjusted to 2002 dollars using
the Medical Care Consumer Price Index and were based on the reported prevalence in the
National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
Results: The overall U.S. 2002 cost of
schizophrenia was estimated to be $62.7 billion,
with $22.7 billion excess direct health care cost
($7.0 billion outpatient, $5.0 billion drugs, $2.8
billion inpatient, $8.0 billion long-term care). The
total direct non-health care excess costs, including
living cost offsets, were estimated to be $7.6
billion. The total indirect excess costs were estimated
to be $32.4 billion.
Conclusion: Schizophrenia is a
debilitating illness resulting in significant costs. The
indirect excess cost due to unemployment is the
largest component of overall schizophrenia excess