The Relationship of Gender and Trauma Characteristics to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Community Sample of Traumatized Northern Plains American Indian Adolescents and Young Adults
J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(9):1176-1183
© Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
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Objective: Previous studies have identified
a high prevalence (25%-80%) of trauma among American Indian and non-American Indian
adolescents and adults. However, only a fraction
of traumatized individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines
the relationships of gender and trauma
characteristics to a diagnosis of PTSD among a
community sample of traumatized American Indian
adolescents and young adults.
Method: Complete data were collected
from 349 American Indians aged 15 to 24 years who participated in a cross-sectional
community-based study from July 1997 to December 1999 and
reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event. Traumatic events and PTSD were assessed
using a version of the Composite International
Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression determined
the relationships of gender, trauma type, age at
first trauma, and number of traumas to the development of PTSD.
Results: Forty-two participants (12.0%
of those who experienced a traumatic event) met criteria for lifetime PTSD. While all 4 of the
independent variables noted above demonstrated univariate associations with PTSD,
multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that
only experiencing a sexual trauma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.45, 95% confidence interval
[CI] = 1.76 to 11.28) and having experienced 6 or more
traumas (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.04) were independent predictors of meeting criteria
Conclusion: American Indian children
and adolescents who experience sexual trauma and multiple traumatic experiences may be at
particularly high risk for developing PTSD.