The Economic Impact of Bipolar Disorder in an Employed Population From an Employer Perspective.
J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67(8):1209-1218
© Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
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Objective: To determine the economic impact of
bipolar disorder on health benefit costs and health-related work
absences from an employer perspective.
Method: Data on health benefit costs and
health-related absences during 2001 and 2002 were retrieved from
a database and retrospectively examined. Regression modeling
measured the cost differences while controlling for potentially
confounding factors. The study population consisted of employees
at multiple large employers who were widely dispersed throughout
the United States. These employees were grouped into 2 cohorts:
(1) employees with a bipolar disorder diagnosis (primary,
secondary, or tertiary ICD-9 code of 296.0x, 296.1x, 296.4x,
296.5x, 296.6x, 296.7x, or 296.8x) in 2001 and (2) employees with
no bipolar disorder diagnosis during 2001 or 2002 (comparison
cohort). Specific outcome measures included annual health benefit
claim costs and salary-replacement payments for the following
employee health benefits: health care insurance, prescription
drug, sick leave, short- and long-term disability, and workers'
compensation. Additional outcome measures included annual absence
days due to workers' compensation, short- and long-term
disability, and sick leave (separately).
Results: The analysis identified 761 employees
(0.3%) with bipolar disorder and 229,145 eligible employees
without bipolar disorder. Employees with bipolar disorder
annually cost $6836 more than employees without bipolar disorder
(p < .05) and were more costly in every health benefit cost
category. Employees with bipolar disorder missed an average of
18.9 workdays annually, while employees without bipolar disorder
missed 7.4 days annually (p < .05).
Conclusion: The impact of bipolar disorder can
be costly in the workplace, leading to increased health benefit
costs and increased absenteeism.