Mental Health and Extracurricular Education in Korean First Graders: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study
J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(6):861-868
© Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Purchase This PDF for $40.00
If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
(You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP online-only ($86) or print + online ($156 individual).
With your subscription, receive a free PDF collection of the NCDEU Festschrift articles. Hurry! This offer ends December 31, 2011.
If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
Click here to login.
Did you forget your password?
Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send email
Objective: This study explores the results of mental health screening in Korean first graders in association with the amount of time the children spent in extracurricular education.
Method: The study included a community sample of 761 boys and girls, with a mean age of 6.6 years, collected from 5 elementary schools in Gunpo-si, South Korea, in July 2007. Primary caregivers completed a questionnaire that included information on demographic characteristics, the amount of time the children spent in extracurricular education and other activities, and an adapted form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) to screen for mental health problems.
Results: These first graders spent a mean of a little over 2 hours each day in extracurricular education. Extracurricular education demonstrated positive correlations with 4 BASC-2 domains, including hyperactivity (r = 0.092, P < .05), aggression (r = 0.073, P < .05), conduct problems (r = 0.073, P < .05) and depression (r = 0.137, P < .01). A positive linear relationship between depression and extracurricular education was also evident in regression analyses (F = 2.25, R2 = 0.022, P = .001). The relationship held true even when controlling for time spent with parents, time spent with friends, and time spent asleep. Post hoc analyses revealed that children receiving more than 4 hours of extracurricular education per day showed a sharp increase in depressive symptoms as well as a decrease in the amount of time spent with caregivers.
Conclusions: Results of this study demonstrate that excessive amounts of time spent in extracurricular education (greater than 4 hours per day) may be associated with depression in school-aged children. These findings have relevance for mental health screening and educational policy.
J Clin Psychiatry
Submitted: December 12, 2009; accepted June 14, 2010.
Online ahead of print: February 8, 2011 (doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05907gry).
Corresponding author: Hyun Ju Hong, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, 896 Pyeongchon-dong Dongan-gu Anyang-si Gyeonggido, Republic of Korea (firstname.lastname@example.org).