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The Multifactorial Presentation of Depression in Acute Care

J Clin Psychiatry 2013;74(suppl 2):3-8
10.4088/JCP.12084su1c.01

Depression is by its very nature a heterogeneous disorder; 2 patients with the same diagnosis (ie, major depressive disorder) may have few symptoms in common. This heterogeneity is evidenced by the fact that depression presents in a wide variety forms related to polarity (unipolar vs bipolar), symptoms (melancholic, atypical, psychotic, or anxious), onset (specific events, seasons, or age), recurrence, and severity. These diagnostic specifiers and subgroups can guide treatment decisions in several ways. For example, recognizing a specific depressive subtype in a patient can help the clinician select an appropriate treatment based on that patient’s particular presentation. These subtypes can also guide treatment by helping the clinician and patient to identify and discuss factors that help or hinder the achievement of remission and recovery. Although depression specifiers and subtypes are subject to revision and change, many of them provide helpful information about recognition and treatment.

(J Clin Psychiatry 2013;74[suppl 2]:3–8)

From the Departments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

This article is derived from the planning teleconference series “Depression: Managing the Full Range of Symptoms to Achieve Lasting Remission,” which was held in May and June 2013 and supported by an educational grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., US Region and Lundbeck.

Dr Thase is an advisor/consultant for Alkermes, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Dey, Forest, Gerson Lehman, GlaxoSmithKline, Guidepoint Global, Lundbeck, MedAvante, Merck, Neuronetics, Ortho-McNeil, Otsuka, Pamlab, Pfizer, Roche, Shire, Sunovion, Takeda, and Transcept; has received grant/research support from AHRQ, Eli Lilly, Forest, NIMH, and Otsuka; has received honoraria from AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Merck, and Pfizer; has equity holdings in MedAvante; and has received royalties from the American Psychiatric Foundation, Guilford Publications, Herald House, and W.W. Norton & Company; his spouse/partner is employed by Peloton Advantage.

Corresponding author: Michael E. Thase, MD, 3535 Market St, Ste 670, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (thase@mail.med.upenn.edu).