Clinical Correlates of Zolpidem-Associated Complex Sleep-Related Behaviors: Age Effect

Objective: Complex sleep-related behaviors (CSBs) are often associated with hypnotic use, especially zolpidem. The age effect on the occurrence of CSBs has not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to investigate and compare the clinical correlates of CSBs between adult and elderly subjects who were taking zolpidem.

Method: A total of 253 adults (aged 20–55 years) and 64 elderly subjects (aged ≥ 65 years) who were administered zolpidem for at least 3 months were enrolled from psychiatric outpatient clinics from June 2011 to May 2012. The sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, the dose of zolpidem, and the occurrence of CSBs were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the clinical correlates of CSBs.

Results: In total, there were 62 members of the adult group (24.5%) and 11 elderly subjects (17.2%) with CSBs; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was a main effect of zolpidem dose (≥ 10 mg; OR = 2.82, P = .038) and alcohol use (OR = 2.05, P = .026), but not sex or age group. There were interactive effects between age group and zolpidem dose (P = .043), indicating that a higher dose of zolpidem was associated with CSBs only in the adult group and not in the elderly group. Adults with CSBs used a higher dose of zolpidem than adults without (mean ± SD: 15.4 ± 6.8 mg vs 11.3 ± 5.7 mg), whereas elderly patients with CSBs did not use a higher dose of zolpidem than those without (12.2 ± 5.4 mg vs 11.9 ± 7.0 mg).

Conclusions: A higher dose of zolpidem was correlated with CSBs only in the adult group and not in the elderly group. Future studies investigating the factors, other than dose, related to CSBs in the elderly will be performed.

J Clin Psychiatry 2014;75(11):e1314–e1318

https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08901