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ADHD and Comorbidity in Childhood

J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67(suppl 8):27-31

In recent years, evidence has been accumulating regarding high levels of comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a number of disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders and conduct disorder. Thus, ADHD is most likely a group of conditions, rather than a single homogeneous clinical entity, with potentially different etiologic and modifying risk factors and different outcomes. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD indicate that subgroups of subjects with ADHD and comorbid disorders have a poorer outcome as evidenced by significantly greater social, emotional, and psychological difficulties. Investigation of these issues should help to clarify the etiology, course, and outcome of ADHD.