Cost of Depression Among Adults in Japan



Forgot your login? GET HELP

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008.

Method: The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms.

Results: The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression.

Conclusions: Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2011;13(3):e1–e9

Submitted: November 6, 2010; accepted November 10, 2010.

Published online: May 5, 2011 (doi:10.4088/PCC.10m01082).

Corresponding author: Yasuyuki Okumura, PhD, Department of Social Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi cho, Kodaira 187-8553, Tokyo, Japan (

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2011;13(3):e1-e9