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Absence of Changes in Antidiuretic Hormone, Angiotensin II, and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide With Clozapine Treatment of Polydipsia-Hyponatremia: 2 Case Reports

J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(8):415-419

Background: Polydipsia-hyponatremia is a poorly understood disorder that causes considerable mortality and morbidity. Hyponatremia in polydipsia-hyponatremia has been attributed to disturbances in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) function. Improvements in polydipsia-hyponatremia during clozapine treatment offered the chance to see if levels of ADH and other hormones associated with osmoregulation changed with improvement in biochemical and clinical measures of polydipsia-hyponatremia.

Method: In this preliminary, longitudinal study, we studied 2 male schizophrenic patients (DSM-III-R) who had polydipsia-hyponatremia. Measures were (1) biochemical and clinical: serum sodium and osmolality, urine osmolality and specific gravity, normalized diurnal weight gain, and estimated urine volume and (2) endocrine: ADH, angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide, and prolactin. Measures were collected during 2 months of baseline (typical neuroleptic) and 6 months of clozapine treatment.

Results: Single-case statistical procedures showed significant changes in sodium levels (a.m. and p.m.), estimated urine volume, and a.m. urine specific gravity in both patients and significantly decreased diurnal weight gain in 1 patient. Both serum and urine osmolality showed improvement, but values did not reach statistical significance. Low baseline ADH levels persisted through 6 months of clozapine treatment and showed no changes in the context of improvements in serum sodium and osmolality. No significant changes were seen in levels of angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide.

Conclusion: Given the limitations of this study, there is some evidence to suggest that the improvements in serum sodium and osmolality during clozapine treatment of polydipsia-hyponatremia may not be related to serum levels of ADH, although altered ADH receptor function cannot be ruled out. These data need to be extended in larger samples.