Effectiveness of a Brief Behavioral Treatment for Inner-City Illicit Drug Users With Elevated Depressive Symptoms: The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS Act!)
J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69(1):122-129
© Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
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Objective: Depression is highly prevalent among illicit drug
users, and this co-occurrence is associated with poorer treatment outcomes.
However, there has been limited empirical attention toward developing and
assessing behavioral interventions for depression among illicit drug users. The
objective of the current study was to test the efficacy of integrating a brief
behavioral intervention for depression into standard inpatient substance abuse
Method: Forty-four adult illicit drug users with mild to
moderate depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II] score >=
10) who were receiving inpatient substance abuse treatment were randomly
assigned to either treatment as usual (TAU) alone or TAU plus brief behavioral
therapy for depression (i.e., Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use
[LETS Act!]). Patients were assessed at baseline for DSM-IV psychiatric
diagnoses, depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, BDI-II),
anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), and enjoyment and reward value of
activities (Environmental Reward Observation Scale). Patients were again
assessed at posttreatment and at 2-week follow-up. Treatment satisfaction and
attrition rates also were assessed at posttreatment. Data were collected from
November 2005 to March 2006.
Results: Patients who received the LETS Act! intervention (N =
22) evidenced significantly greater improvements than the TAU group (N = 22) in
severity of depression, anxiety symptoms, and enjoyment and reward value of
activities at posttreatment and in depressive symptoms at 2-week follow-up. The
LETS Act! group also reported significantly higher treatment satisfaction
Conclusions: This study supports the efficacy of LETS Act! in
treating depressive symptoms and improving the enjoyment and reward value of
activities among illicit drug users currently receiving inpatient substance use
treatment. Data also indicate the intervention may help prevent treatment
attrition. LETS Act! appears to be a feasible and parsimonious intervention to
improve the treatment of depression and overall quality of care within
inpatient substance abuse treatment settings.