Preventing Delirium at the End of Life: Lessons From Recent Research



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Preservation of the ability to think clearly, in comfort, is a goal of end-of-life care. Recent research on delirium at the end of life suggests clinical strategies for prevention of cognitive impairment. Clinicians should consider early warnings of mild delirium such as impairment in attention and short-term memory by following the patient's ability to remember 3 words or to attend to digit span before the patient is disoriented. If cognitive impairment is noted, clinicians should pay attention to reversible causes. This article reviews clinical concerns about opiates, benzodiazepines, steroids, hepatic encephalopathy, timely use of neuroleptic medications, and caretaking strategies at home.

Primary Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2003;5(2):62-67