Antipsychotics for Cocaine or Psychostimulant Dependence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Taro Kishi, MD, PhD; Yuki Matsuda, MD; Nakao Iwata, MD, PhD; and Christoph U. Correll, MD

Published: December 15, 2013

Article Abstract

Objective: Since cocaine and psychostimulant dependence are related to increased dopamine release, antipsychotics have been tried to reduce their reinforcing properties. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics in cocaine- or stimulant-dependent patients.

Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library databases, and PsycINFO from database inception until June 24, 2013, using the following keywords: (randomized OR random OR randomly) AND (placebo) AND (methylphenidate OR cocaine OR methamphetamine OR amphetamine OR 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) AND (dependence OR abuse) AND (antipsychotic OR neuroleptic OR 34 specific antipsychotic names).

Study Selection: Included were randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antipsychotics lasting at least 2 weeks in patients with primary cocaine or psychostimulant dependence. Of 363 hits, we removed 316 duplicates, 20 references based on abstract/title, and 13 ineligible full-text articles, retaining 14 trials for this meta-analysis.

Data Extraction: Two authors independently extracted the data. Coprimary outcomes included degree of substance use and lack of abstinence. Risk ratio (RR), 95% CI, and standardized mean difference were calculated.

Results: Ten studies in patients with primary cocaine dependence (risperidone = 5, olanzapine = 3, reserpine = 2; n = 562) and 4 in those with amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence (aripiprazole = 4; n = 179) were meta-analyzed (14 studies, total n = 741). When study results were pooled together, antipsychotics did not differ from placebo in regard to cocaine use days and lack of cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine abstinence, severity of addiction, cocaine or amphetamine/methamphetamine craving, Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scores, depression, anxiety, compliance, all-cause discontinuation, and several side effects. However, antipsychotics caused more intolerability-related discontinuation than placebo (P = .0009). Individually, aripiprazole was superior to placebo in regard to CGI-S (P = .001), while olanzapine was inferior to placebo in regard to cocaine craving (P = .03) and risperidone was inferior to placebo in regard to depression (P = .002).

Conclusions: Antipsychotics had no advantages over placebo in regard to cocaine use and cocaine or psychostimulant abstinence or craving, while causing more intolerability-related discontinuations.

J Clin Psychiatry 2013;74(12):e1169-e1180

Submitted: April 12, 2013; accepted August 13, 2013 (doi:10.4088/JCP.13r08525).

Corresponding author: Christoph U. Correll, MD, Division of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, 75-59 263rd St, Glen Oaks, NY 11004 (ccorrell@lij.edu).

Volume: 74

Quick Links: Addiction , Substance Use Disorders

Continue Reading…

Subscribe to read the entire article

$40.00

Buy this Article as a PDF

Sign-up to stay
up-to-date today!

SUBSCRIBE

Already registered? Sign In

Original Research

Frontothalamic Circuit Abnormalities in Patients With Bipolar Depression and Suicide Attempts

To identify potential markers for suicide risk, this fMRI study looked at neural activity in bipolar depression...

Read More...