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Educational Activity

Depression Symptomatology and Neurobiology

Alan J. Gelenberg, MD

Published: February 9, 2010

This CME activity is expired. For more CME activities, visit
Find more articles on this and other psychiatry and CNS topics:
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders

Article Abstract

The DSM-IV-TR distinguishes major depressive disorder (MDD) from normal sadness and grief by requiring a certain duration and number of symptoms that cause impairment and dysfunction. Depression is considered a heterogeneous condition in which different biologic abnormalities may be responsible for problems with sleeping, eating, energy, and emotional reactions. Neuroimaging, pharmacology, and genomics are among the sources of information that have contributed to theories about the pathophysiology of MDD and may lead to truly personalized medicine in the future.


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