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Recognizing Primary Vs Secondary Negative Symptoms and Apathy Vs Expression Domains

Brian Kirkpatrick, MD, MSPH

Published: April 15, 2014

This CME activity is expired. For more CME activities, visit CMEInstitute.com.
Find more articles on this and other psychiatry and CNS topics:
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders

Article Abstract

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia, and avolition. Rating scales are helpful for recognizing and monitoring these symptoms, but clinicians must determine whether the symptoms are primary or secondary. Secondary negative symptoms can be caused by depression, psychotic symptoms, medication side effects, and substance abuse, and they usually improve with treatment of the underlying cause. On most rating scales, negative symptoms have been found to load onto 1 of 2 domains—apathy or diminished expression. This distinction may facilitate the development of new treatments.


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Volume: 75

Quick Links: Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

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