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Sex Hormones and the Female Brain: The Toll of Variability and Deficiency

Marlene P. Freeman, MD

Published: June 15, 2007

Article Abstract

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Increasing evidence shows important relationships between reproductive endocrinology and psychiatry that will have implications for treatment development.

A growing body of literature supports that variability of gonadal hormone levels is problematic for mental health in women. Premenstrual, postpartum, and perimenopausal mood exacerbations have been observed in women with histories of major depressive disorder, and mood exacerbations have been associated with fluctuating levels of sex hormones.1‘ ‹

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