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JCP

The Cannabis Collection

Article Abstract

The Cannabis Collection

In 2014, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) received approval for the first-ever trial of medical marijuana to treat PTSD in US veterans, but approval by the US Drug Enforcement Agency didn’ t occur until the spring of 2016. In the meantime, however, marijuana is already legalized for medical use in 25 US states (as of June 2016). With this increased availability comes a responsibility for the medical community to understand the existing research and to share with patients any risks associated with marijuana use.

The 2 most studied chemicals found in cannabis have been THC [delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol], a stimulant to cannabinoid brain receptors, and cannabidiol, most likely a depressant. Still, we are uncertain about how these 2 active ingredients work in concert, don’ t know enough about the other 400+ chemicals in cannabis, and have yet to determine the pharmacodynamics of dosing and distinguish individual pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this special collection is to fill this gap in knowledge.

In this curated collection,* you’ ll find

  • 3 Review articles
  • 5 Reports of original research, with 1 RCT and 1 NESARC
  • 1 Case report
  • 2 Invited commentaries
  • 1 Commentary derived from a teleconference with experts in the field

From this collection, you’ ll be able to

  • Weigh the benefits and risks of cannabis use
  • See how use may impact recovery in veterans with PTSD, then get an overview of the current evidence about medicinal marijuana and PTSD
  • Discover if cannabis can ease depressive symptoms
  • Understand the risk for conversion to schizophrenia and other psychoses associated with cannabis use in vulnerable individuals
  • Find out if casual use leads to addiction, how synthetic cannabinoids compare with cannabis in patient outcome, and if a method to aid withdrawal from cannabis can be used to help your patients
  • Evaluate the longitudinal risk from reviews of the most recent literature

*Articles identified as CME may no longer be available for credit; please check expiration dates.

Benefits and Risks

Cannabis and Neuropsychiatry, 1: Benefits and Risks

Chittaranjan Andrade, MD

J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(5):e551-e554

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Marijuana Use Is Associated With Worse Outcomes in Symptom Severity and Violent Behavior in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Samuel T. Wilkinson, MD; Elina Stefanovics, PhD; and Robert A. Rosenheck, MD

J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76(9):1174-1180

The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature

Stephanie Yarnell, MD, PhD

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2015;17(3):doi:10.4088/PCC.15r01786

Depression

Treatment of Cannabis Use Among People With Psychotic or Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review

Amanda L. Baker, PhD; Leanne Hides, PhD (Clin); and Dan I. Lubman, PhD

J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71(3):247-254

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09r05119gry

Schizophrenia and Psychoses

The Effect of Marijuana Use on the Risk for Schizophrenia

A. Eden Evins, MD, MPH; Alan I. Green, MD; John M. Kane, MD; and Sir Robin M. Murray, MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCPsych, FMedSci, FRS

J Clin Psychiatry 2012;73(11):1463-1468

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.12012co1c

The Impact of Cannabis and Stimulant Disorders on Diagnostic Stability in Psychosis

Grant E. Sara, MM; Philip M. Burgess, PhD; Gin S. Malhi, MD; Harvey A. Whiteford, MD; and Wayne C. Hall, PhD

J Clin Psychiatry 2014;75(4):349-356

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08878

Continued Cannabis Use and Outcome in First-Episode Psychosis: Data From a Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled Trial

Gunnar Faber, MD, PhD; Henderikus G. O. M. Smid, PhD; Arthur R. Van Gool, MD, PhD; Lex Wunderink, MD, PhD; Robert J. van den Bosch, MD, PhD; and Durk Wiersma, PhD

J Clin Psychiatry 2012;73(5):632-638

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.11m07069

Progression From Cannabis Use to Addiction

Probability and Correlates of Dependence Among Regular Users of Alcohol, Nicotine, Cannabis, and Cocaine: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

Jesse R. Cougle, PhD; Jahn K. Hakes, PhD; Richard J. Macatee, MS; Michael J. Zvolensky, PhD; and Jesus Chavarria, MS

J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(4):e444-e450

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09469

Synthetic Cannabinoids vs Cannabis

Characteristics of Synthetic Cannabinoid and Cannabis Users Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital: A Comparative Study

Nadav Shalit, MD; Ran Barzilay, MD, PhD; Gal Shoval, MD; Dan Shlosberg, MD, PhD; Nofar Mor; Nofar Zweigenhaft; Abraham Weizman, MD; and Amir Krivoy, MD

J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(8):e989-e995

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m09938

Withdrawal

Inpatient Detoxification From a Synthetic Cannabinoid and Control of Postdetoxification Cravings With Naltrexone

Christopher J. C. Rodgman, MD; Christopher D. Verrico, PhD; Ray B. Worthy, MD, PhD; and Erica E. Lewis, MS

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2014;16(4):doi:10.4088/PCC.13l01594

dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.13l01594

Longitudinal Risk in Psychiatric Indications

Cannabis and Neuropsychiatry, 2: The Longitudinal Risk of Psychosis as an Adverse Outcome

Chittaranjan Andrade, MD

J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(6):e739-e742

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16f10918

A Systematic Review of the Evidence for Medical Marijuana in Psychiatric Indications

Samuel T. Wilkinson, MD; Rajiv Radhakrishnan, MD; and Deepak Cyril D’ Souza, MD

J Clin Psychiatry 2016;77(8):1050-1064

dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15r10036

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