Resource Utilization and Costs Associated With Insomnia Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

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Objective: To estimate resource utilization and costs associated with insomnia treatment among newly treated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Method:Data from the MarketScan® Research Databases (Commercial Claims and Encounters, Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits, and Health and Productivity Management) were analyzed. Patients aged ≥18 years with a first prescription claim for an antidepressant between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007 (index date), were included in the analysis if they had ≥1 MDD diagnosis (ICD-9-CM criteria) in the 12 months prior to the claim and 24 months of continuous insurance coverage. Patients were categorized into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of insomnia medication during the 12 months following the index date. Multivariate analyses were conducted to compare all-cause and MDD-related hospitalization and emergency room (ER) visits and costs in the year following the index date between patients with and without insomnia medication. Covariates for adjustment included age, gender, region, health plan type, baseline comorbidities, and health care utilization.

Results: The total sample size was 87,461 newly treated MDD patients with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (15.1) years; 67% were women. Among newly treated patients, 10,339 (11.8%) took insomnia medication. Patients taking insomnia medication were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.73–1.96 for all cause; OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.43–1.57 for MDD related; P<.0001) and to have ER visits (OR=4.25, 95% CI=3.65–4.95 for all cause; OR=2.51, 95% CI=2.24–2.81 for MDD related; P<.0001) than the patients not taking insomnia medication. Adjusted all-cause health care costs were $3,918 (95% CI=$3,599–$4,290) higher and MDD-related health care costs were $537 (95% CI=$492–$586) higher in the insomnia medication cohort compared with controls in the 12-months following the index date. Patients taking insomnia medication had $1,162 more indirect costs for short-term disability compared to the control group (95% CI=$746–$1,684).

Conclusions: The use of insomnia medications in newly treated patients with MDD appears to be associated with increased health care resource utilization and higher total and depression-related direct and indirect medical costs.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2012;14(5):doi:10.4088/PCC.12m01374

Submitted: March 5, 2012; accepted May 29, 2012.

Published online: September 27, 2012.

Corresponding author: Edward Kim, MD, MBA, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, East Hanover, NJ 07936-1080 (

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2012;14(5):doi:10.4088/PCC.12m01374