This work may not be copied, distributed, displayed, published, reproduced, transmitted, modified, posted, sold, licensed, or used for commercial purposes. By downloading this file, you are agreeing to the publisher’s Terms & Conditions.

Original Articles

The Dexamethasone Suppression Test in Patients With Mood Disorders

A. John Rush, MD; Donna E. Giles, PhD; Michael A. Schlesser, MD; Paul J. Orsulak, PhD; C. Richard Parker, Jr., PhD; Jan E. Weissenburger, PhD; George T. Crowley, and Nishendu Vasavada, MD

Published: October 15, 1996

Article Abstract

Background: This study was undertaken to (1) determine whether the endogenous/nonendogenous mood disorder dichotomy is validated by the dexamethasone suppression test (DST); (2) determine whether other subtyping schemes (unipolar/bipolar, DSM-III melancholic/nonmelancholic, Winokur’s family history subtypes) relate to the DST; (3) evaluate the relative contributions of symptom severity, weight loss, and other factors to DST status; and (4) assess the relative sensitivity of various post-dexamethasone cortisol determinations in the detection of dexamethasone nonsuppression.

Method: 487 consecutive adult inpatients (N = 131) and outpatients (N = 356) with unipolar (N = 422) or bipolar disorder (N = 65) underwent the 1.0-mg DST. Nonsuppression was defined as at least one post-dexamethasone cortisol measurement > 4.0 µg/dL.

Results: Nonsuppression occurred in 27% of all patients with major depression and 43% of all bipolar depressed phase patients. For outpatients, dexamethasone nonsuppression occurred in 35.2% of subjects with endogenous (unipolar + bipolar; N = 145) and 9.0% of those with nonendogenous (unipolar only; N = 211) depressions (single 4 p.m. post-dexamethasone cortisol). For inpatients, dexamethasone nonsuppression was found in 61.5% of subjects with endogenous (N = 104) and 18.5% of those with nonendogenous (N = 27) depressions (three postdexamethasone cortisol determinations). For the inpatient and outpatient sample together, the DST had a sensitivity of 46.2% and a specificity of 89.9% in differentiating endogenous from nonendogenous major depressive episodes. Weight loss, gender, and symptom severity added little to the endogenous/ nonendogenous dichotomy. The Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) primary/secondary and Winokur and colleagues’ family history subtypes for unipolar depression were not strongly validated by the DST. The 4 p.m. and 11 p.m. samples together detected 91.0% of those inpatients with abnormal three-sample DST results. The 8 a.m. sample alone detected 30% of those, the 4 p.m. sample alone detected 67%, and the 11 p.m. sample alone detected 62%.

Conclusion: The RDC endogenous/nonendogenous dichotomy was validated by the DST.

Volume: 57

Quick Links: Bipolar Disorder , Mood Disorders

Continue Reading…

Subscribe to read the entire article

$40.00

Buy this Article as a PDF

Sign-up to stay
up-to-date today!

SUBSCRIBE

Already registered? Sign In

Clinical and Practical Psychopharmacology

Skeletal and Dental Fractures Associated With Electroconvulsive Therapy

Recent data suggest the risk of skeletal or dental fracture with ECT may be as low as...

Read More...