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Original Research

A Combined Index Using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Lawton Index to Discriminate Between Clinical Dementia Rating Scores of 0.5 and 1: A Development and Validation Study

Kazuaki Uchida, PhD; Taiki Sugimoto, PhD; Kenta Murotani, PhD; Masashi Tsujimoto, MD, PhD; Yoshinobu Kishino, MD; Yujiro Kuroda, PhD; Nanae Matsumoto, PhD; Kosuke Fujita, PhD; Keisuke Suzuki, MD, PhD; Rei Ono, PhD, MPH; Toshihiro Akisue, MD, PhD; Hidenori Arai, MD, PhD; Kenji Toba, MD, PhD; and Takashi Sakurai, MD, PhD

Published: May 20, 2024


Objective: To develop a combined index using cognitive function and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) to discriminate between Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores of 0.5 and 1 in the clinical setting, and to investigate its optimal cutoff values and internal and external validities.

Methods: We included outpatients aged 65–89 years with CDR scores of 0.5 or 1. The optimal cutoff values and internal validity were verified using Japanese memory clinic-based datasets between September 2010 and October 2021 [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG) datasets]. Cognitive function and IADL were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Lawton Index (LI), respectively. The optimal cutoff values were defined using the Youden Index. To verify internal validity, sensitivity and specificity were calculated using stratified 5-fold cross-validation. To verify external validity, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cutoff values were assessed in the Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment (ORANGE) Registry dataset between July 2015 and March 2022, which has multicenter clinical data.

Results: A total of 800 (mean age, 77.53 years; men, 50.1%) and 1494 (mean age, 77.97 years; men, 43.3%) participants comprised the NCGG and ORANGE Registry datasets, respectively. The optimum cutoff values for men and women were determined as MMSE < 25 and LI < 5 and MMSE < 25 and LI < 8, respectively; such a combined index showed good discriminative performance in internal (sensitivity/specificity: men, 92.50/73.52; women, 88.57/65.65) and external validities (men, 81.43/77.62; women, 77.64/74.67).

Conclusion: The index developed is useful in discriminating between CDR scores of 0.5 and 1 and should be applicable to various settings, such as memory clinics and clinical research.

J Clin Psychiatry 2024;85(2):23m15101

Author affiliations are listed at the end of this article.

Volume: 85

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