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Original Research

The Mixed Opioid Receptor Antagonist Naltrexone Mitigates Stimulant-Induced Euphoria: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone

Thomas J. Spencer, MD; Pradeep Bhide, PhD; Jinmin Zhu, PhD; Stephen V. Faraone, PhD; Maura Fitzgerald, MPH; Amy M. Yule, MD; Mai Uchida, MD; Andrea E. Spencer, MD; Anna M. Hall, BA; Ariana J. Koster, BS; Leah Feinberg, BS; Sarah Kassabian, BS; Barbara Storch, BS; and Joseph Biederman, MD

Published: March 13, 2018

Article Abstract

Objective: Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015). Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System methylphenidate (SODAS-MPH) was administered twice daily, was titrated to ~1 mg/kg/d over 3 weeks, and was continued for 3 additional weeks depending on response and adverse effects. Subjects were adults with ADHD preselected for having experienced euphoria with an oral test dose of 60 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). The primary outcome measure was Question 2 (Liking a Drug Effect) on the Drug Rating Questionnaire, Subject version, which was assessed after oral test doses of 60 mg of IR-MPH were administered after the third and sixth weeks of treatment with SODAS-MPH.

Results: Thirty-seven subjects who experienced stimulant-induced (mild) euphoria at a baseline visit were started in the open trial of SODAS-MPH and randomized to naltrexone 50 mg/d or placebo. Thirty-one subjects completed through week 3, and 25 completed through week 6. Naltrexone significantly diminished the euphoric effect of IR-MPH during the heightened-risk titration phase (primary outcome; first 3 weeks) (χ2 = 5.07, P = .02) but not the maintenance phase (weeks 4-6) (χ2 = 0.22, P = .64) of SODAS-MPH treatment.

Conclusions: Preclinical findings are extended to humans showing that naltrexone may mitigate stimulant-associated euphoria. Our findings provide support for further studies combining opioid receptor antagonists with stimulants to reduce abuse potential.

Trial Registration: identifier: NCT01673594

Volume: 79

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