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Original Research

Prevalence and Trends in Cigarette Smoking With and Without Tobacco Use Disorder Among Adults in the United States: 2010–2021

Joanna M. Streck, PhD; Maria A. Parker, PhD, MPH, MS; Raul Cruz, PhD; Rachel L. Rosen, PhD; Timothy B. Baker, PhD; Megan E. Piper, PhD; and Andrea H. Weinberger, PhD

Published: June 12, 2024


Objective: Few national estimates are available on the prevalence of tobacco use disorder (TUD) in the United States (US), and most trials exclusively assess daily smoking rather than TUD. We examined the prevalence and trends in cigarette smoking with vs without TUD among adults.

Methods: Data came from the 2010–2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 483,982), a cross sectional, US representative dataset. A TUD composite variable was created based on established definitions (eg, DSM-5 symptoms). Weighted prevalence of past 30-day cigarette smoking, daily smoking (30/30 days) and nondaily smoking (<30/30 days) with and without TUD, was calculated annually.

Results: In 2021, the prevalence of past 30- day overall cigarette smoking was 17%; 11% reported daily cigarette smoking, whereas 6% reported nondaily cigarette smoking. Only 1% of the population reported daily smoking without TUD, whereas 10% reported daily smoking with TUD. Two percent of the population reported nondaily smoking without TUD, and 4% of the population reported nondaily smoking with TUD. Daily smoking with TUD and nondaily smoking with and without TUD decreased significantly from 2010 to 2021 (all P’s < .001). US adults reporting TUD symptoms (vs not) were more likely to be older, identify as White, have lower income and less education, and have a substance use disorder.

Conclusions: The prevalence of daily cigarette smoking with TUD was 10í higher than the prevalence of daily cigarette smoking without TUD. Twice as many US adults with nondaily smoking reported TUD than no TUD, illustrating that daily smoking is not necessary for TUD.

J Clin Psychiatry 2024;85(3):23m15086

Author affiliations are listed at the end of this article.

Volume: 85

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