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Original Research

Suicide Risk Assessment Received Prior to Suicide Death by Veterans Health Administration Patients With a History of Depression

Eric G. Smith, MD, MPH; Hyungjin Myra Kim, ScD; Dara Ganoczy, MPH; Claire Stano, MA; Paul N. Pfeiffer, MD, MS; and Marcia Valenstein, MD, MS

Published: March 15, 2013

Article Abstract

Objective: To examine the quality of suicide risk assessment provided to veterans with a history of depression who died by suicide between 1999 and 2004.

Method: We conducted a case-control study of suicide risk assessment information recorded in 488 medical charts of veterans previously diagnosed with major depression, depression not otherwise specified, dysthymia, or other, less common ICD-9-CM depression codes. Patients dying by suicide from April 1999 through September 2004 or comparison patients (n = 244 pairs) were matched for age, sex, entry year, and region.

Results: Seventy-four percent of patients with a history of depression received a documented assessment of suicidal ideation within the past year, and 59% received more than 1 assessment. However, 70% of those who died of suicide did not have a documented assessment for suicidal ideation at their final Veterans Health Administration (VHA) visit, even if that visit occurred within 0 through 7 days prior to suicide death. Most patients dying by suicide denied suicidal ideation when assessed (85%; 95% CI, 75%-92%), even just 0 through 7 days prior to suicide death (73%; 95% CI, 39%-94%). Suicidal ideation was assessed more frequently during outpatient final visits with mental health providers (60%) than during outpatient final visits with primary care (13%) or other non-mental health providers (10%, P < .0001).

Conclusions: Most VHA patients with a history of depression received some suicide risk assessment within the past year, but suicide risk assessments were infrequently administered at the final visit of patients who eventually died by suicide. Among patients who had assessments, denial of suicidal ideation appeared to be of limited value. Practice changes are needed to improve suicide risk assessment among patients with histories of depression, including the development of assessment and prevention strategies that are less dependent on the presence or disclosure of suicidal ideation at scheduled medical visits.

J Clin Psychiatry 2013;74(3):226-232

Submitted: April 13, 2012; accepted November 12, 2012(doi:10.4088/JCP.12m07853).

Corresponding author: Eric G. Smith, MD, MPH, MD-152, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VAMC, 200 Springs Rd, Bedford, MA 01730 (

Volume: 74

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