Evaluation of the Impact of a Multimodel Intervention on Prescribing Patterns of Sedative-Hypnotics in a Behavioral Health System

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Objective: To describe the effect of a multimodal intervention targeting chronic benzodiazepine and sedative-hypnotic prescriptions in a large behavioral health system.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed chronic sedative-hypnotic prescription rates in patients seeking mental health services in a large behavioral health system. The multimodal intervention consisted of provider education, coordination of care with all providers involved in patient care, and guideline development and implementation for safe prescribing of sedative-hypnotics. Three time periods were analyzed: preintervention (October 2013–December 2013), 12-month assessment (October 2014–December 2014), and 24-month assessment (October 2015–December 2015). The primary outcome of the study was the change in frequency of chronic (≥ 60 days) sedative-hypnotic prescriptions received before and after the multimodal intervention. The secondary outcome included the change in prescription rates in a priori–defined cohorts: patients on methadone maintenance therapy and patients 60 years of age.

Results: There were 32,944 prescriptions during the study period. The rate of chronic sedative-hypnotic prescriptions decreased from 1,764 (15.3%) to 1,634 (14.9%) to 1,018 (9.8%) between the 3 assessment periods, respectively. A significant decrease occurred between the preintervention period and 24-month assessment (5.5%, P < .0001) and between the 12-month assessment and the 24-month assessment (5.1%, P < .0001). In the elderly, prescription rates decreased significantly between the preintervention period and the 24-month assessment (3.6%, P < .0001) and the 12-month and 24-month assessments (3.2%, P = .0001). In patients in methadone maintenance programs, rates of concomitant chronic sedative-hypnotic prescriptions decreased significantly between all assessment periods: preintervention and 12-month assessment (8.2%, P = .001), 12-month and 24-month assessment (6.3%, P = .002), and preintervention and 24-month assessment (14.5%, P < .0001). Additionally, prescription rates increased significantly for antidepressants (4.1%, P < .05), hydroxyzine (1.1%, P = .01), buspirone (2.1%, P < .05), gabapentin (6.3%, P < .05), and melatonin agonists (0.3%, P < .05) between the preintervention and 24-month assessment periods.

Conclusions: Implementation of a multimodal intervention led to a significant decrease in rates of chronic sedative-hypnotic prescriptions in a large behavioral health system.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018;20(3):18m02269