Risk of Diabetes Hospitalization or Diabetes Drug Intensification in Patients With Depression and Diabetes Using Second-Generation Antipsychotics Compared to Other Depression Therapies

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Objective: Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for treatment of depression has increased, and patients with depression and comorbid diabetes or cardiovascular disease are more likely to use SGAs than those without these conditions. We compared SGA and non-SGA depression pharmacotherapies on the risk of diabetes hospitalization or treatment intensification in adults with depression and preexisting diabetes.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of US commercially insured adults (2009–2015 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database) aged 18–64 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus and unipolar depression previously treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. New users of SGAs versus non-SGAs, as well as specific treatments (aripiprazole, quetiapine, bupropion, mirtazapine, and tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs]) were matched on class/medication-specific high-dimensional propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the risk of diabetes-related hospitalization or treatment intensification.

Results: We identified 6,625 SGA (aripiprazole = 3,461; quetiapine = 1,977; other = 1,187) and 23,921 non-SGA patients for inclusion (bupropion = 15,511; mirtazapine = 1,837; TCAs = 5,989; other = 584) with a mean age of 51 years. In the matched cohort, the rate of diabetes-related hospitalization or drug intensification was 47.9 per 100 person-years in the SGA group and 43.5 per 100 person-years in the non-SGA group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96–1.11). When comparing treatment subgroups, the risk of events was lower for bupropion versus TCAs (aHR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76–0.98), quetiapine versus mirtazapine (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–0.99), and quetiapine versus TCAs (aHR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72–0.98). For other comparisons, differences were small and not statistically significant.

Conclusions: While drug-specific effects on risk of diabetes hospitalization or treatment intensification most likely guide clinical decision making, we observed only modest differences in risk. The overall impact of SGAs on diabetes control depends not only on direct effects on glucose metabolism but also on effectiveness of depression symptom relief. Future studies evaluating other diabetes outcomes (glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes complications) are needed.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018;20(3):17m02220