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Original Research

Treatment-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Treatment Strategies

Sean T. Gregory, MBA, MS, PhDa,*; Brian Kay, MSb; Joseph Smith, MPHc; Kristin Hall, MPHc; Alessandro S. De Nadai, MAd,e,f; Troy Quast, MS, PhDc; Bradley C. Riemann, PhDb; and Eric A. Storch, PhDg

Published: February 6, 2018

Article Abstract

Objective: This study sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of 7 treatment strategies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults.

Methods: A model was developed to evaluate treatment alternatives for adults (18-64 years old) that consisted of 2 parts: a decision analytic model and a Markov model. The decision analytic model stratified 7 outpatient treatment strategies, and the Markov model accumulated benefits and costs across the life expectancy of a simulated cohort of individuals. The model was parameterized with probabilistic and deterministic parameters from the literature and an outcomes database to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 adults with OCD to estimate net health benefits (NHBs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for each treatment strategy. OCD was considered treatment refractory in adults with an OCD diagnosis who failed first-line therapies. Encounters took place from 2012 to 2015, and the analyses were performed from November 2016 to February 2017.

Results: Partial hospitalization with step-down to intensive outpatient treatment was the most cost-effective of the 7 strategies, with an estimated ICER of $7,983 and mean (SD) NHB of 10.96 (0.53) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) remaining. This result was 2.2 QALYs greater than that of the trial-based antidepressant and cognitive-behavioral therapy (ADM + CBT) strategy. Three additional ADM + CBT strategies were estimated not to be statistically significantly different from each other. These 4 ADM + CBT strategies outperformed both pharmacotherapy-only strategies.

Conclusions: Treatment strategies that include higher-intensity CBT, with effectiveness outcomes that approached efficacy estimates, were superior to real-world CBT strategies. However, given the limited availability of high-quality CBT, especially through use of commercial insurance networks, specialized treatment programs offer greater effectiveness than real-world therapies in achieving wellness for this severe patient population.

Notice of correction 2/9/2018: Table 1 had reference 28 corrected to reference 38, Diefenbach and Tolin.

Volume: 79

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