Stimulant Formulations for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Objective: Clinicians have access to a variety of formulations of methylphenidate and amphetamine to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, due to new emerging formulations, clinicians may lack up-to-date knowledge about all available stimulant formulations. Presented here is a comprehensive guide to13 formulations of methylphenidate and 10 formulations of amphetamine that have US Food and Drug Administration approval to treat ADHD.

Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the following MeSH terms: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, stimulant, amphetamine, and methylphenidate. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published through 2017.

Study Selection and Extraction: Forty-eight articles were identified; however, these included analyses using product labels and anecdotal or uncontrolled reports of apparent clinical inequivalence. Thus, 34 articles were included in the final review to provide a thorough evidence-based guide.

Results: Each formulation has a unique pharmacokinetic profile. Clinically, one formulation may not be suitable for all patients. To select the most appropriate formulation, clinicians should consider the individual patient’s preferences such as dosing schedule, time required to reach peak plasma concentration and duration of action, and tolerability.

Conclusion: This review provides clinical guidance to help clinicians prescribe the most suitable treatment for an individual.​​​

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018;20(6):18r02345

https://doi.org/10.4088/PCC.18r02345