This work may not be copied, distributed, displayed, published, reproduced, transmitted, modified, posted, sold, licensed, or used for commercial purposes. By downloading this file, you are agreeing to the publisher’s Terms & Conditions.

Original Research

Young-Adult Social Outcomes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Lucy Riglin, PhDa; Andrew Todd, MRCPsycha; Rachel Blakey, PhDb; Amy Shakeshaft, PhDa; Evie Stergiakouli, PhDb; George Davey Smith, MD, FRSb; Kate Tilling, PhDb; and Anita Thapar, FRCPsych, PhDa,*  

Published: January 25, 2023

ABSTRACT

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adult life. However, it is unclear whether the risk pathways to adverse adult outcomes are established during childhood or whether associations are driven by concurrent ADHD symptoms that have persisted to adulthood.

Methods: We examined associations between broadly defined child-limited (remitted) and persistent ADHD (assessed using the ADHD subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) with negative social outcomes (low emotional and instrumental support, antisocial behavior, employment, receipt of state benefits as an indicator of socio-economic disadvantage, homelessness) at age 25 years in a UK longitudinal population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (age 25 data collected between years 2017 and 2018; total N = 6,439).

Results: Up to 20% of young people with less favorable social outcomes at age 25 had persistent ADHD. Persistent ADHD was associated with an increased likelihood of being not in education, employment, or training (NEET) (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.06 to 6.67, P = 1 í 10−05) and receiving state benefits (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.62 to 4.57, P = 2 × 10−04) at age 25 years compared to those without ADHD. We did not find strong evidence of associations between child-limited ADHD and social outcomes (NEET OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54 to 2.69, P = .65; state benefits OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.76 to 2.51, P = .29). Persistent ADHD associations with negative social outcomes were observed across family-of-origin income groups and sex and were not explained by comorbidity.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of continued monitoring and management of ADHD symptoms and related social as well as clinical outcomes across development into adulthood. Future research is needed to identify what factors promote positive social outcomes, including effective treatment of adult ADHD symptoms.

Volume: 84

Quick Links: ADHD

Continue Reading…

Subscribe to read the entire article

$40.00

Buy this Article as a PDF

References

Sign-up to stay
up-to-date today!

SUBSCRIBE

Already registered? Sign In

Case Report

Safety and Tolerability of Concomitant Intranasal Esketamine Treatment With Irreversible, Nonselective MAOIs: A Case Series

Three cases suggest that concomitant use of intranasal esketamine with an irreversible, nonselective MAOI is safe in...

Read More...